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Vitold Bakhir Electrochemical Systems and Technologies

5th period. 2015-present: AQUATRON systems — a new step in the development of electrochemical activation

Electrochemical activation is a technologies and systems for electrochemical synthesis and subsequent use in various technological processes of metastable substances in the form of water or solutions with abnormal chemical activity instead of traditional solutions of chemical reagents. Electrochemical activation imitates chemical processes in Nature and accelerates them thousands of times.

Electrochemical activation allows for effective purification and conditioning of large and small volumes of drinking water, waste water, swimming pool water, high-level disinfection with environmentally friendly solutions, which after use are converted into ordinary fresh water. Such solutions are used in the processing of any objects – from medical instruments to premises for storing vegetables and grain products, livestock and poultry farms, slaughterhouses and clean rooms for the preparation of meat and fish food products, as well as for the disinfection of small and large territories and objects, occupied by filtration fields, garbage dumps, including anthrax burials.

During the period of work on the orders of DELPHIN AQUA (2011 – 2015), the design bureau of the Institute has developed vessel-type electrochemical reactors. This technical solution has made it possible to exclude the destruction of tubular ceramic diaphragms at significant internal pressure during filtration from the anode chamber to the cathode one. The change in the polarity of the electrode inside the diaphragm from positive to negative has made it possible to reduce the breaks of the diaphragm many times, but it has become necessary to place the anode chamber in a sealed dielectric housing. It is precisely this design of electrochemical cells that has made it possible to create high-productivity devices with the technology of ion-selective electrolysis with a long service life of ceramic diaphragms, exceeding 20,000 hours of continuous operation.

Design of MB elements body developed and produced by Vitold Bakhir Electrochemical Systems and Technologies Institute under contracts for DELFIN AQUA (2011 – 2015). These elements were a necessary stage in the design activity before the development of AQUATRON electrochemical systems.
Polymer casing (PVC) reinforced on the inside with fluoroplastic F4 with a block of anodes located at the corners of hexagons or squares filling the entire area of the internal section, each of them having a cathode assembly in the center in the form of a cathode with a diaphragm hermetically installed on it. 

New possibilities for designing systems appeared in 2016 thanks to the end of research and the beginning of the use of ceramic diaphragms with new properties. In the development of technical electrochemical systems, the diaphragm is the main element that determines the entire design of an electrochemical reactor, the entire technical electrochemical system and a number of technological possibilities for operating an electrochemical reactor.

 Due to the AQUATRON technical electrochemical systems created in 2016, the efficiency of using the electrochemical activation technology has significantly increased in its original key field of application: a multiple reduction in the consumption of non-renewable raw materials used for the synthesis of chemical reagents. Replacing traditional chemical reagents with electrochemically activated water or solutions synthesized at the site of use from water of varying degrees of mineralization allows for complete elimination or significant reduction of the production waste volume.

With the advent of AQUATRON systems, the range of applications for electrochemical activation has expanded. High-performance and economical AQUATRON systems are used in a new capacity, since they are able to provide on-site continuous synthesis in any required amount of the most important products of the chemical industry, such as chlorine, caustic soda, concentrated hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, persulphuric acid and other chemical products.


The main part of the electrochemical system is partition (diaphragm or membrane) separating the anode and cathode chambers. It is the mechanical, geometric, thermophysical, chemical, physical and physicochemical parameters, including filtration, electroosmotic, sorption, catalytic and electrocatalytic properties, that determine the ways of designing an electrochemical reactor, either universal or (most often) intended for use in certain technological processes.  

The use of a ceramic diaphragm chemically resistant, not subject to aging and loss of functional properties, in flow-through MB elements instead of a polymer membrane makes it possible to implement a wide range of various technological processes that are not available when using other types of electrochemical systems.

 In the period from 2016 to 2020, a new generation of electrochemical modular MB elements was created, represented by various modifications depending on the type of technological process being implemented, the field of application (purpose) and operating conditions.

Electrochemical cells developed between 2016 and 2020. Despite the external similarity, there are no identical elements in the photo. Not only the design of devices for the inlet and outlet of fluids into the electrode chambers of the cells differs, but also the configuration of the electrode space (interelectrode distance, diaphragm wall thickness, diaphragm diameter and length, flow formation devices). There are differences in electrode materials (titanium, tantalum, zirconium), anode coating materials, seals, structural dielectric materials (bushings, clamps, centralizers).

AQUATRON systems is a collective name for technical electrochemical systems with MB elements, created on the basis of new technological concepts and design solutions in accordance with the regulatory documents of 2016: “Flow-through electrochemical modular MB elements for electrolysis of water and aqueous electrolyte solutions. Group technical conditions TU 3614-015-77350578-2016” and “AQUATRON devices for electrolysis of water and aqueous electrolyte solutions. Group technical conditions TU 3614-017-77350578-2016”.  The traditional names of electrochemical equipment, such as EMERALD, STEL-ANK-SUPER, AQUACHLOR, ECOCHLOR and others, produced after 2016 in accordance with the above regulatory documents, have received the additional name AQUATRON-01, AQUATRON-05, AQUATRON-20, AQUATRON- 25, etc. Changes in the designation of electrochemical systems have made it possible to streamline the classification of typical units and parts, as well as unify the elements of electrochemical reactors and auxiliary equipment. For consumers, changes in the designation facilitate the choice and orientation in the technical characteristics of equipment and in the parameters of synthesized products. New technological features of AQUATRON systems with MB elements, in addition to high current densities and low voltages at the electrodes, are characterized by the presence of systems for intensifying electrochemical processes due to equalization of temperature, concentration and gas filling along the entire length of the reactor electrode chamber at a preset pressure drop across the diaphragm; using technological methods and technical systems that change the phase state of the products of electrochemical reactions in a directed manner; the use of technologies for the selection of the chemical composition of the auxiliary electrolyte to control the physicochemical parameters of the medium without changing its elemental chemical composition under unipolar electrochemical treatment.

The developer of AQUATRON electrochemical systems is the research and production company – VitoldBakhir Electrochemical Systems and Technologies Institute. The activities of the Institute are based on the inventions of Vitold Bakhir, the founder of the scientific and technical area called electrochemical activation. The main task of the Institute is the development and creation of a fundamentally new electrochemical technique providing an effective solution to urgent problems in medicine, industry, agriculture and other fields.

 The unique nature of the Institute’s developments is due to the direct participation of the author of electrochemical activation and a team of scientists and specialists he has been heading for many years in the development and production of electrochemical systems for various purposes, which allows the company to occupy a leading position in the world in the creation and implementation of “green” technologies that determine the future of mankind.


1. The performance of the new generation MB elements has increased from 4 to 12 times. Continuous working time has reached 50,000 hours.

New generation MB elements allow electrolysis of saline solution at a pressure of 6 – 7 bar, which makes it possible to obtain liquid chlorine without compression.

2. The application of the principles of ion-selective electrolysis with a diaphragm (ISED) in the design of STEL-ANK-SUPER devices has made it possible to bring the parameters of ANOLIT ANK SUPER to a new qualitative level, while simultaneously increasing the productivity of STEL-ANK-SUPER devices by several times (up to 2000 liters per hour).

3. A significant (up to 80%) unification of hydraulic circuits of AQUACHLOR, ECOCHLOR, STEL-ANK-SUPER, EMERALD – UNIVERSAL units has been achieved, which has made it possible to increase the reliability of technical electrochemical systems and the quality of their products.

 The parameters of the process of charge transfer through the membrane are determined by 
the very low electromigration veloсity of cations in the polymer electrolyte. The pressure drop across the membrane is absent. The process does not ensure complete decomposition of the sodium chloride solution entering the anode chamber, requires the injection of distilled water into the cathode chamber.
 A ceramic DIAPHRAGM with pore sizes from 0.01 to 0.1 μm is converted into a cation-active MEMBRANE by the superposition of the pressure field (from the anode to the cathode) and the electric field. The parameters of the process of charge transfer through the diaphragm are determined by 
the of filtration flow velocity of the electrolyte solution in a porous medium, represented by inert metal oxides. The process provides continuous and complete electrolytic decomposition of sodium chloride solution to chlorine, caustic soda solution and hydrogen.
A ceramic DIAPHRAGM with pore sizes from 0.01 to 0.1 μm is converted into an anionic MEMBRANE by the superposition of the pressure field (from the cathode to the anode) and the electric field. The process provides the production of caustic soda, hydrogen and hypochlorous acid with a concentration of up to 30% from initial concentrated sodium chloride solution.
AQUACHLOR-3000; Production of chlorine: 3 kg/h;
Production of caustic soda: 3.4 kg/h;
Exit catholyte (18% aqueous solution of NaOH): 19 l/h;
Power consumption: 10 kW;
Nominal power source options;
Amperage-2400; Voltage-4.4; Dimensions (HxLxW): 1750x600x400 mm;
Weight: 95 kg. The consumption of salt (sodium chloride): 5.4 kg/h;
The consumption of salt in solution (270-300 g/l): 18-20 l/h Provides disinfection to 72 000 m3 of water per day. 2016.

The AQUACHLOR device in this design is a module and is designed to work in a system of several identical modules (from 12 to 64) with common hydraulic systems. From such modules it is possible to mount compact chlorine plants with a chlorine gas capacity of up to 192 kg / h (4.5 tons of chlorine per day).

One STEL ANK-SUPER-500 device with an Anolyte ANK SUPER capacity of 500 liters per hour provides a food enterprise’s need for an environmentally friendly disinfectant solution. Anapa, 2018
AQUACHLOR-600 devices with a capacity of 600 grams of chlorine per hour in the wastewater treatment system of cardboard factory (40,000 cubic meters wastewater per day). Surazh, 2017
This Russian cardboard factory operates about ten different STEL-ANK-SUPER and AQUACHLOR units of high capacity. Most of these installations are mounted in auxiliary rooms adjacent to the shops for receiving raw materials (waste paper), the shops for the primary processing of waste paper, in the corridors of the shops where cardboard machines are mounted, moreover, in those places where there is the greatest contamination of aqueous solutions. These places do not look beautiful, but STEL and AQUACHLOR units are unpretentious and provide the most important areas of the factory from the point of view of microbiological contamination with environmentally friendly solutions – Anolyte ANK SUPER and a solution of oxidants. Surazh, 2018
 STEL devices for the production of Anolyte ANK super is using for disinfection of paper pulp supplied to the shafts of a cardboard making machine.  The plant has two machines for making cardboard. They are very large, 8-10 meters high and 150-200 meters long.  Almost all cardboard is made from recycled paper, which is highly contaminated and, when shredded and mixed with water, gives rise to an increased bacterial contamination of the cardboard mass, which in turn causes the cardboard sheet to break when passing through the rolling and drying stages.  Each stop of the machine line for 15-30 minutes is the loss of one freight truck with finished cardboard.  Therefore, great importance is attached to the preparation of water and disinfection of the cardboard mass. Surazh, 2018
AQUACHLOR devices with a capacity of 100 and 300 grams of chlorine per hour.
The consumed electrical power is 300 and 900 watts. 2018
Three AQUACHLOR devices with a totalcapacityof 2.7 kgofchlorineperhourintheHealthcare Products
 Manufacturer Company workshop, USA, 2017.

AQUACHLOR devices minimize the risks associated with typical accidents at production facilities using liquid chlorine and do not require quite a number of standard safety measures

Six AQUACHLOR devices with a total chlorine capacity of 7 kg per hour. Chemical company CHEMSTAR, USA, 2018
The system for preparing the starting salt solution for 10 AQUACHLOR devices with a total chlorine productivity of 14.8 kg / h in the CHEMSTAR chemical company workshop. United States, 2018.
AQUACHLOR-1500 devices at a water treatment plant with a drinking water capacity of 60,000 cubic meters per day. 2020
AQUACHLOR-500 devices being installed in the local drinking water purification and conditioning system.
Drinking water capacity of the system is 2500 cub. meters per day, one of the devices is working, the other is backup. The working device operates in a repeated short-term mode: switching on every 50 minutes, operating time 10 minutes.
RF, 2020.
AQUACHLOR-600 device at a domestic waste water treatment plant with a capacity of 8,000 cubic meters per day. RF, 2020.
AQUACHLOR-70 devices in mobile performance. The capacity for disinfected water is 1000 cubic meters per day (based on 1 g of chlorine per one cubic meter of water). Power consumption 200 W.
The power source is built-in (AC 110-240 volts), or external: 12 or 24 volts direct current (car battery). 2017

AQUACHLOR: comparison of the reagentsproperties for water disinfection

STEL-ANK SUPER-250 device with capacity of Anolyte ANK SUPER 250 liters per hour at a meat processing plant, 2019.
 Anolyte ANK SUPER is used for treatment of premises, as well as raw materials and substances.
Anolyte ANK SUPER distribution system throughout the meat processing plant. 2019
STEL-ANK-SUPER-250 device with an Anolyte ANK SUPER capacity of 250 l/h with a system of water pre-treatment and its saturation with free hydroxyl groups and hydrogen (2021). The device can be operated in continuous mode (24/7) or intermittently, automatically maintaining a predetermined level of Anolyte ANK SUPER in the storage tank. Thanks to flexible inlet and outlet hoses, as well as the presence of wheels on the frame, it does not cause trouble for hospital staff when cleaning the premises.  GKB-52, 2020.
STEL-ANK-SUPER-500 device at the Anolyte ANK SUPER bottling plant. Before being fed into the STEL-ANK-SUPER-500 device, water is purified in the EMERALD-UNIVERSAL-700 device. Bulgaria,
Установки СТЭЛ-АНК-СУПЕР производительностью 100 литров в час. ГКБ-52, 2018
Anolyte ANK SUPER bottling plant. Bulgaria, 2019
The STEL-ANK-SUPER-250 device with a capacity of 250 liters per hour provides the pharmaceutical factory with an environmentally friendly disinfectant solution for cleaning and disinfecting equipment and premises. Russia, 2021
Treatment (washing and disinfection) of floors in pharmaceutical premises is carried out with Anolyte ANK SUPER, diluted with distilled water to a concentration of oxidants of 50 and 200 mg / l (depending on the category of the premises). Pharmaceutical company, Russia, 2021
Two STEL-ANK-SUPER-1000 units ensure the production of Anolyte ANK SUPER in the amount of 35 – 40 tons per day.
Anolyte production workshop ANK SUPER in the United Arab Emirates, 2019.
STEL-ANK-SUPER devices with a capacity of 100 liters per hour. GKB-52, 2018
Devices STEL-ANK-SUPER-100 (capacity for Anolyte ANK SUPER 100 l/h). The two photos on the left are a 2019 model. On the right – the model of 2021, which, in addition to Anolyte ANK SUPER, is capable of synthesizing a solution of chemically pure hypochlorous acid with a capacity of up to 20 l/h at a concentration of 500 – 600 mg/l. 2021.
Devicefortheproductionofeight-percentsodiumhypochloritesolutionor concentrated hypochlorius acid solution with a capacityof 100 litersperhour.
Typicalhydraulicterminalforconnectingmodularplantsforthesynthesisofchlorineandchlorineproductswithacapacityofmorethan 1 kgperhourforchlorine. 2017

Electrochemical System OXITRON – 2500 E, 2021

Electrochemical module for the recovery of a solution of PSV uranium. Performance for solution 10 cubic meters per hour. The number of MB-26T-07 elements is 24, the total current strength is up to 2500 amperes, the voltage is 6 volts.
  • 1. Basic hydraulic diagram of a solution regeneration system for underground borehole leaching of uranium
  • 2. Basic hydraulic diagram of the electrochemical module
  • 3. Solution to injection wells
  • 4. Catholyte circulating tank (circulating catholyte tank common for all modules)
  • 5. Buffer tank
  • 6. Initial solution
  • 7. Excess alkaline solution – 0.7% of the main stream
  • 8. Pressure stabilizer in the anode chambers of the reactor elements
  • 9. Regenerated solution for underground borehole leaching of uranium
  • 10. Reactor with MB-26-07 elements

AQUATRON-15-500 Electrochemical system (2021)



Consumed electric power, kW: 40
Productivity for electrochemically activated anolyte or catholyte, l/h: from 500 to 1000
PH adjustment range, pH units: 1.5 to 13.
The range of regulation of the redox potential, mV: from +1250 to – 850.
Autonomous electrode cooling system using an external heat exchange unit.
Anolyte and catholyte circulation in the system using built-in diaphragm pumps with pneumatic drive from the compressor.
Modified AQUATRON-15 units are used for the synthesis of persulfuric, percarbonic, peracetic, percitric and perlactic acids with a concentration of 0.01 to 0.1 mol / l.
AQUATRON-15-500 device at the customer’s facility under construction in the process of testing. The result is extraction with cold electrochemically activated distilled water (500 l/h, pH = 9.5) – the beaker on the left in comparison with extraction on distilled source water.  (2021)

These preservatives range from powders to slurries to liquids of various ingredients. Many of the current preservatives do not provide biocide or odor control for flower and vase solutions and the addition of disinfectants is often needed.

Potassium enriched hypochlorous acid solutions, saturated with dissolved oxygen, with or without addition of HOCl- compatible surfactants, provides multiple benefits, including turbidity and odor control of the floral care solutions, into which cut flowers and plants are placed, vase-live extension and water uptake improvement, as well as improvement of “cleanability” of vases and other containers in which cut flowers and plants are placed.  

Laboratory tests to select the optimal conditions for maintaining the freshness of cut flowers through the use of electrochemically activated solutions. Puricore, Malvern, 2017

A family of inventions relates to a preservative or watering solution for cut flowers and plants during their storage life. In particular, the inventions relate to an electrochemically treated solutions that extend the life of cut flowers and plants and prevents biofouling of the stems. Fresh cut flowers begin to loose their freshness as soon as they are cut. As such, there is a desire among floral retailers and consumers to lengthen their lifetime. Adding preservatives to water in which the fresh cut flowers are stored is a common practice.

Sterilox and FloraFresh: extends shelf life and improves quality; addresses safety concerns; reduces waste (shrink) and labour


The family of floral preservative patents covers the FloraFresh® advanced floral care and handling solutions, which combine antimicrobial activity with a natural floral nutrient to provide a proprietary, balanced solution to keep all species of cut flowers fresher, longer, and reduce time on vases and buckets cleaning. There are two groups of products, ready to use solution, and high strength hypochlorous acid enriched with potassium ion, that is developed for on-site dilution with tap water to produce floral care solution. The use of high strength solution eliminates any complications related to water hardness, or other contaminations. PuriCore had developed special dosing systems, which were installed in floral departments of the supermarket across the country. The main benefits of floral concentrates is the same as ready to use floral care solutions:

  • Enhances shelf life to reduce shrink
  • Eliminates bucket scrubbing and cleaning
  • Enhances home life to improve customer satisfaction/loyalty
  • Eliminates the need for floral food/bucket cleaners
  • Effectively kill non-health pathogens and spoilage organisms in the bucket/vase water


FloraFresh® has been recognized as efficient—one solution for all your cut flowers.

High strength FloraFresh solution is one of a series of stabilized hypochlorous acid prodouocts.

In the photo, the sample on the left is asparagus stored in an electrochemically activated fresh (low-mineralized) solution of hypochlorous acid (Sterilox); in the center is asparagus stored in tap water; on the right is asparagus stored in a dry state. Experiment time 72 hours. To prevent microbial contamination of the water in which the asparagus is stored and cross-contamination of the asparagus itself, stores have tried to sell asparagus stored on display without water, but the asparagus has lost both freshness and weight.
Using Sterilox solution  to store asparagus combines the quality and financial benefits of: prevention of dehydration and weight loss; improving the appearance; extension of the shelf life for 72 – 96 hours; odor control; improving family life. Due to the food safety benefits, the addition of ECA-solutions prevent cross-contamination, stop the growth of microflora in asparagus storage solution, keeping containers clean.

Stabilized Hypochlorous Acid

The terminology Stabilized Hypochlorous Acid is starting with development of Vashe bottles product. Before Vashe, it has been accepted that hypochlorous acid is very unstable chemical.

Chemistry of hypochlorous acid is defined by the following main equations:

HOCl + H+ + Cl‾  → Cl2 + H2O,

At pH<6: 2 HOCl = 2HCl + O2

At pH>6: HOCl + 2NaOCl = HClO3 + 2NaCl

At pH<3.5: HOCl + H+ → Cl2 + H2O

Stabilized within pH range of 3.5 to 6.0, hypochlorous acid is the main active chlorine species.

The benefits of stabilized hypochlorous acid solutions include products safety, purity and expanded shelf.

Only as a result of stabilized hypochlorous acid products development we were able to introduce our technology to the multiple markets in the US, wounds wash, produce safety and cut flowers applications.

Application of hypochlorous acid solution for infection control and prevention has been studies for multipoint application. One of the outstanding benefit of hypochlorous acid, its sporicidal activity, was demonstrated, but has not find yet commercial application.

Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that is the most common cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea in developed countries [1]. Patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) shed spores in stool, resulting in contamination of their skin, clothing, and nearby environmental surfaces [2]. Healthcare workers’ hands serve as a vector for transmission of spores from these sites to susceptible patients [2]. Although sporicidal products are available for disinfection of contaminated surfaces, standard hand hygiene and bathing products have limited efficacy for removal of spores from skin. Hand washing with soap and water reduces C. difficile spore counts by only about 2 log10 colony-forming units (CFU), and use of alcohol-based hand hygiene products does not reduce spore counts [2,3].  Similarly, bed baths using soap and water do not significantly reduce levels of spores on the skin of CDI patients [4]. 

Electrochemically activated solutions of hypochlorous acid have demonstrated sporicidal activity against several species of bacillus and clostridia, including C. difficile [5]. In contrast to other sporicidal disinfectants, electrochemically activated saline solutions are safe for application on skin, and the Vashe Wound solution has been commercially available as a wound care product. The hypothesis that electrochemically activated saline solutions containing hypochlorous acid would effectively reduce the burden of spores on hands and on patients’ skin was studies by The Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, a 214-bed acute care hospital with an adjacent long-term care facility, Research supported by the Department of Veterans Affairs [6].

The effectiveness of bed baths using Vashe solution versus non-medicated soap and water for removal of spores from skin of patients with recently diagnosed CDI (i.e., bathing was performed within the first 4 days of CDI therapy) was conducted on 47 patients. For bed baths, the patient’s groin, abdomen, chest, arms and hands were thoroughly wiped with a terrycloth towel soaked in the appropriate solution. The towel was soaked a second time in the solution and the test areas were wiped again.

For bed baths with soap and water, 64% of sites on patients’ skin were positive before bathing and 57% of sites remained positive after bed baths (p =0.5).  In contrast, Vashe bed baths resulted in a significant reduction in positive cultures from 54% of skin sites before bathing to 8% after bathing (p <0.0001). Soap and water bathing did not reduce the burden of spores on skin (p =0.7), whereas Vashe bathing significantly reduced the number of spores recovered after bathing (p <0.01). None of the patients reported any adverse effects related to bathing with the Vashe solution.

For a subset of 8 patients in both test groups with positive pre-bathing cultures, skin cultures were collected 4, 8, and 24 hours after bathing. For the soap and water group, all patients continued to have positive cultures for 14 sites that were positive prior to bathing. For the Vashe group, 8 cultures of the chest, abdomen, arm or hand that were positive at baseline became negative after Vashe bathing and remained negative at 4, 8, and 24 hours.  For the Vashe group, 7 patients had positive groin cultures at baseline and only 1 had a positive culture after bathing; however, 2 of 7 patients had positive groin cultures at 4 hours and 3 of 7 by 24 hours.  Because skin contamination often persists after diarrhea has been resolved and after shedding of spores in stool has been reduced to minimal levels by CDI therapy, the Cleveland VA Medical Center results suggested that bathing of CDI patients with hypochlorous acid-containing solutions might help to significantly reduce the burden of spores on skin.

Core Technology 

It has to be noted that Vashe Wound Solution is registered by FDA as a medical device, and no claims on its sporicidal activity for skin decontamination can be made. 

Sources of information.

1. Cohen SH, Gerding DN, Johnson S, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults: 2010 update by the society for healthcare epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the infectious diseases society of America (IDSA). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010; 31: 431-55.

2. Oughton MT, Loo VG, Dendukuri N, Fenn S, Libman MD. Hand hygiene with soap and water is superior to alcohol rub and antiseptic wipes for removal of Clostridium difficile. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009; 30: 939-44.

3. Jabbar U, Leischner J, Kasper D, et al. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand rubs for removal of Clostridium difficile spores from hands. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010; 31: 565-70.

4. Jury LA, Guerrero DM, Burant CJ, Cadnum JL, Donskey CJ. Effectiveness of routine patient bathing to decrease the burden of spores on the skin of patients with Clostridium difficile infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011; 32: 181-4.

5. Shetty N, Srinivasan S, Holton J, Ridgway GL. Evaluation of microbicidal activity of a new disinfectant: Sterilox 2500 against Clostridium difficile spores, Helicobacter pylori, vancomycin resistant Enterococcus species, Candida albicans and several Mycobacterium species. J Hosp Infect 1999; 41: 101-5.

6. Nerandzic MM, Rackaityte E, Jury LA,  Eckart K, Donskey CJ.  Novel Strategies for Enhanced removal of Persistent Bacillus anthracis Surrogates and Clostridium difficile Spores from Skin. PLoS One; 8(7): e68706 

AQUATRON electrochemical systems in water purification, disinfection and conditioning technology

 AQUATRON electrochemical systems and the technology of their use for water purification and disinfection were created and developed in close cooperation between the Institute of Electrochemical Systems and Technologies and its research and development partner – Blue Safety company, GMBH. Scientific cooperation between the companies has a history since 2011. Long-term fruitful scientific cooperation has made it possible to create a universal electrochemical technology for water purification of ideal ecological purity and efficiency with the minimum use of a completely safe chemical reagent – table salt. One of the important advantages of this technology is the ability to scale it up by using AQUATRON units with a capacity from several liters per hour (microdevices) to tens of thousands of cubic meters per day. The most important fact is the practical confirmation of the specified performance ranges.

The development of AQUATRON systems in the field of drinking water, waste water and swimming pool water purification is carried out in line with the following principles: increasing productivity, reducing labor, time, energy and material costs, increasing efficiency and quality according to functional purposes.  New markets and new applications are being explored. The mechanism of fresh water purification processes in Nature is represented by two main processes: redox reactions and filtration. Other processes – sorption, ion exchange, coagulation, flocculation, coalescence, sedimentation, are additional and usually occur during the filtration of purified water through soil layers, sedimentary and rock massifs.

Taking into account the need to create a high-performance efficient technical system for water purification with maximum simplicity and minimum number of elements, the concept of hardware design of the purification process included the following stages: 1) oxidation and disinfection; 2) filtration; 3) coagulation, flocculation, hydrate formation; 4) filtration, sorption; 5) additional oxidation, water protection; 6) filtration.

This concept was initially implemented in devices with active electrochemical and passive filter elements, the water purification diagram showing their principle of operation. 

Water hygiene. We only see a fraction of what it really is.

7/10 of an iceberg are under water. It is not visible. Still it is there. Because of these 7/10, the Titanic sank.

The essence of the electrochemical technology, developed by specialists and scientists of the company Blue Safety for dental practice, consists in obtaining low-mineralized Anolyte ANK at the place of use and dosed it into the drinking water supply line in proportion to the volumetric flow rate of the water. To implement the technology, compact automated electrochemical devices SAFE WATER for the synthesis of Anolyte ANK, as well as automatic dosing systems for Anolyte ANK, have been developed. Further advances in technology have led to the creation of more efficient and versatile systems based on the EM-TURBO process technology.

Relying on the capabilities of the technological developments of the Institute and BLUE SAFETY, the Water.Foundation charity has received new opportunities for its activities. Its goal is dedicated to the protection of nature and the use of technology for charitable purposes to ensure safe water supply and hygiene in emergencies, to support other charitable organizations that work on site, managing various electrochemical systems that purify drinking water and produce an environmentally friendly disinfectant solution – ANOLYTE ANK SUPER.

BLUE SAFETY DENTAL AUTO device in dental practice
BLUE SAFETY DENTAL AUTO device in the dental office
BLUE SAFETY DENTAL AUTO device in the dental office
BLUE SAFETY DENTAL HOSPITAL device in the UNI dental clinic Witten/Herdecke

“Gentle”complete biofilm removal

Source: Expert opinion (2012) Prof. Exner, Dr. Gebel – Hygiene Institute of Bonn University.

The RO water supply hose in the dentist’s chair worked for 35 months. Despite the use of hydrogen peroxide additives in the water, biofilms have formed on the walls of the hose.

 Within one month of using the safe water device, biofilms were removed from the inner surface of the hose.

Practical example

No multi-resistant microorganisms in drinking water after water treatment devices.


 Process flow diagram of water purification with active electrochemical and passive filtration elements. The diagram conventionally shows the work of active electrochemical elements, which consists in removing electrons from water in the anode chambers and injecting them into the water in the cathode chambers. Water purification process using direct electrochemical action on purified water is called EM-DIRECT.

The EMERALD-UNIVERSAL-250 device is made according to the EM-DIRECT flow diagram. Tests of a prototype on fresh water and saline aqueous solutions have confirmed the validity of the chosen concept of building a water purification system (2018).

Basic hydraulic diagram of the EM-DIRECT water purification process in the EMERALD-UNIVERSAL-250 device. Electrochemical reactors in the diagram are represented by single MB elements, but for high-capacity systems (more than 250 liters per hour) RPE cells are used in the form of MB element blocks.

Purification and disinfection of water in the EM-DIRECT technological process are accompanied and caused by the following chemical reactions.

Water first enters the anode chamber of a flow-through diaphragm electrochemical reactor. The pressure in the MB1 anode chamber is higher than in the cathode chamber. The first active stage of water purification is primary anode electrochemical treatment:

In the anode chamber of the MB elements, the oxidation process flows almost instantly due to its combined properties of a perfect-mixing and a plug-flow reactor. Also, the anode chamber destroys microbial microflora of all types and forms, microbial toxins, other organic compounds, including herbicides, pesticides, pharmaceuticals.

All insoluble compounds – coagulated organic compounds, as well as oxides of iron and manganese – are retained by the F1 filter, which performs the function of the first passive stage of water purification.

EMERALD-UNIVERSAL-250 device. EM-DIRECT water purification technology with the active stages consisting in a direct electrochemical effect on all purified water in the electrode chambers of one or several flow-through electrochemical reactors – MB elements.
The passive stages of the EM-DIRECT technology are represented by filtration, flotation and the accompanying processes of coagulation, flocculation, hydrate formation, oxidation, sediment formation and sorption.
Purified water capacity 250 l / h
Electric power consumption – up to 1000 W

The second active stage of water purification is cathode electrochemical treatment in the first reactor.

As a result of the cathode treatment of water in the first MB element, the pH of the outlet water reaches values of 7.5–8.2.

The third active stage of water purification is secondary cathode electrochemical treatment.

After leaving the cathode chamber of the second MB element, the water acquires a pH in the range of about 9.

Ions of heavy metals, as well as those of iron, copper, zinc, aluminum are converted into insoluble hydroxides and separated on the F2 filter (the second passive stage of water purification). The water is saturated with hydrogen and becomes suitable for the introduction of the last portion of oxidants in the anode chamber of the MB2 element.

Electrochemical reactor of the EMERALD-UNIVERSAL-1000 device. EM-DIRECT water purification technology.
The capacity of the device is 1000 liters per hour, the maximum voltage on the MB-11T elements of the  reactor is 12 volts, the maximum current is 50 amperes. The device is equipped with a system for flushing the reactors with a solution of a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, which is formed from the purified water in a special electrochemical unit and accumulates in a plastic container with a volume of 10 liters.

The fourth active stage of water purification is secondary anode electrochemical treatment.

Organic manganese and iron:

In the anode chamber of MB2 element, organic ferrous iron and manganese are oxidized, there is also additional oxidation with simultaneous enlargement of particles of all those impurities that have passed the previous stages. The coagulated particles are separated on the F3 filter, which is the third passive stage of water purification.

Filters of the EMERALD-UNIVERSAL-250 device (EM-DIRECT technology), 2018.
From left to right F1, F2, F3 in accordance with the designations on the device circuit diagram.
Coloring of filters with different intensities and with different color shades occurs in the first minutes of the device operation. Filters of the EMERALD-UNIVERSAL-250 device acquire this color when operating for 4 – 5 hours on fresh water from a well with a total salinity of 0.3 g/l and an iron ion content of 1.5 mg/l.

Disadvantages of EMERALD-UNIVERSAL-250 device and EM-DIRECT technology

1. The device capacity does not exceed 250 liters per hour when using two MB-26 reactors with a 350 mm diaphragm and nozzles with DN = 8 mm.

2. The current strength does not exceed 4 amperes at a voltage of 50 – 60 volts, at the end of the cycle, before cleaning the cathode chamber, the voltage reaches 100 volts at a current strength of 2.5 – 3 amperes.

3. Periodic removal of cathode deposits with a 5% hydrochloric acid solution with a volume of about 3 liters is required. The frequency of the operation depends on the chemical composition of the water and the daily volume of the treated water. On the water of the Istra district of the Moscow region at a flow rate of 1.0 – 2.0 cubic meters per day, flushing was required every two weeks.

5. Lack of chlorine-containing oxidants in the treatment of sulfate-hydrocarbonate-calcium-magnesium water, which is available in many places in the world and, in particular, in the Istra district of the Moscow region. The content of chloride ions in the source water is only 4 – 5 mg/l with a total mineralization of 0.3 g/l.


In order to eliminate these disadvantages and in the development of scientific and technical plans to improve the technology of water purification and conditioning, experimental work and theoretical studies were carried out, as a result of which in 2019 a new technical and process solution was found that fundamentally changed the design of the electrochemical system and made it possible to provide high-quality purification and conditioning of water at almost any volumetric flow rate – from several liters per hour to hundreds and thousands of cubic meters per hour – with very low consumption of electricity and initial reagents used for the operation of the electrochemical system. The new technological solution was named EM-TURBO. This technology is similar to EM-DIRECT one, since it includes the same active and passive stages: 1) oxidation and disinfection, 2) filtration, 3) hydrate formation and coagulation / flocculation, 4) filtration, 5) oxidation and disinfection, 6) filtration. However, the EM-TURBO technology has significant advantages: 1) cleaning of electrochemical reactors is practically not required; 2) much less power consumption; 3) the possibility of regulating the chemical composition of the products of electrochemical reactions; 4) the possibility of using the EM-TURBO technology for the flow rate of purified water from a few liters per hour to hundreds and thousands of cubic meters per hour.

Maximum capacity for purified water – 700 liters per hour. Power consumption for purification – 25 watts per 1.0 cub. meter.
The experimental sample was operated for 8 months. During this time, 250 cubic meters of water was purified. The electrochemical reactor was not acid cleaned. 18 20-inch filter cartridges were used up

Process flow diagram of fresh water purification and conditioning   in the EMERALD-UNIVERSAL- TURBO-800 device

The EM-TURBO technology allows one to choose the optimal chemical composition of the starting solutions and the parameters of electrochemical treatment (current, voltage), ensuring the optimal mode of removing contaminants on the first (left in both photos) and second filters. The gray color of the first filter, which traps the products of cathode reactions, is characteristic of the intense precipitation of hardness salts and organic impurities adsorbed on them. The second filter is loaded with iron oxides mixed with manganese oxides and coagulated organic compounds. The composition of the starting solution for feeding the reactor is a mixture of sodium сhloride  with a total mineralization less than 5 g/l.

EM-TURBO water purification and conditioning technology can be used for a wide range of water types (sea and artesian water, domestic and industrial waste water, swimming pool and cooling tower water). Depending on the specific task, the EM-TURBO technology can be used with electrochemical devices for special purposes or serial devices such as AQUACHLOR or ECOCHLOR. Complex water treatment schemes at municipal drinking water supply stations can be modified without significant changes in typical structures. For example, the scheme for the preparation of drinking water at the Rublevskaya water treatment plant can be significantly improved through the use of AQUACHLOR devices.

The amount and composition of the introduced electrochemically synthesized reagents when using the EM-TURBO technology is controlled depending on the chemical composition of the water being purified by changing the current in the electrochemical reactor, the chemical composition of the auxiliary aqueous solution of electrolytes, the feed rate of the starting solutions into the electrode chambers of the reactor, the pressure drop across the reactor diaphragm and dosed removal of excess active electrochemically synthesized reagents – catholyte or anolyte.

Experimental testing of EM-TURBO technology at a municipal wastewater treatment plant with a capacity of 16,000 cubic meters per day. The experiment was carried out using five AQUACHLOR-1000 devices. 2020
The existing process flow diagram of the Rublevskaya water treatment plant
Process flow diagram of Rublevskaya water treatment plant modified in accordance with EM-TURBO
A device for water purification and disinfection in country cottages, 2019. EM-TURBO technology. Productivity up to 700 liters per hour. Complete removal of iron, manganese, microorganisms of all types and forms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, spores), organic compounds, including antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals.

The EMERALD – UNIVERSAL – TURBO – 700  device for water purification and conditioning in cottages, 2020

Research into new principles for the design of electrochemical modular MB elements equipped with alpha alumina diaphragms was organized at the end of 2015. Prototypes of electrochemical cells have shown the fundamental possibility of a significant increase in the productivity of reactors while reducing the cost of electricity. However, since the design features of electrochemical elements are in an absolutely close relationship with the physicochemical, hydraulic, thermal and other parameters of the physicochemical processes in the reactor, it is necessary to carry out experimental studies in order to optimize the design. Such work is an absolutely necessary stage in the design of electrochemical systems and requires the study of various design solutions.

The reactors shown in the photo are the first samples used to experimentally substantiate the theoretical concepts of energy and mass transfer processes when operating on electrolytes of various chemical compositions and concentrations, at various pressure drops across the diaphragm, current density, and flow rate. The experimentally found data were subsequently used to create industrial-type reactors for various types of technological processes.

MB ELEMENTS.  2016 – 2018 
Elements MB-26T-S017. Diaphragm D30-130 (outer diameter 30 mm, length 130 mm); cathode – titanium, pipe 38×1; cooled anode – titanium, tube 20×1.5; anodic coating – iridium oxide. Designed to work in the systems EMERALD-UNIVERSAL-TURBO-1000, STEL-ANK-SUPER-60. 2020.   
Elements MB-26T-S019. Diaphragm D30-100 (outer diameter 30 mm, length 100 mm); cooled cathode – titanium, tube 38×1; cooled anode – titanium, tube 20×1.5; anodic coating – iridium oxide. Designed for operation in the systems EMERALD-UNIVERSAL-TURBO-2000, STEL-ANK-SUPER-100. 2020.   
Elements MB-11T-S009. Diaphragm D12-212 (outer diameter 12 mm, length 212 mm); cathode – titanium, pipe 18×1.5; cooled anode – titanium, tube 8×2.0; anodic coating – iridium oxide. Designed for operation in the systems EMERALD-UNIVERSAL-TURBO-800, STEL-ANK-SUPER-40. 2019.   
Elements MB-11T-S012 and MB-11T-S011. Diaphragm D12-212 (outer diameter 12 mm, length 212 mm); cathode – titanium, pipe 18×1.5; cooled anode – titanium, tube 8×1.0; anodic coating – iridium oxide. Designed for operation in the systems EMERALD-UNIVERSAL-TURBO-700, STEL-ANK-SUPER-40. 2018, 2020.   
Elements MB-11T-S012 and MB-11T-S011. Diaphragm D12-212 (outer diameter 12 mm, length 212 mm); cathode – titanium, pipe 18×1.5; cooled anode – titanium, tube 8×1.0; anodic coating – iridium oxide. Designed for operation in the systems EMERALD-UNIVERSAL-TURBO-700, STEL-ANK-SUPER-40. 2018, 2020. 2018.   
Elements MB-11T-S022. Diaphragm D12-120 (outer diameter 12 mm, length 120 mm); cooled cathode – titanium, tube 18×1.5; cooled anode – titanium, tube 8×1.5; anodic coating – platinum. Designed for operation in experimental systems for the synthesis of organic peracids (supra-lemon, supra-milk, peracetic). 2020.   
Hydraulic detachable connections made of titanium, polypropylene and PVC, standardized for hoses of various diameters and various materials, ensure perfect tightness and high reliability of hydraulic connections of electrochemical reactors and elements of hydraulic systems with minimal labor costs for installation and dismantling. 2019.
Special detachable hydraulic connections with parts and assemblies of hydraulic systems have been developed for fluoroplastic hoses with an inner diameter of 4 and 5 mm, . These connections are particularly reliable, durable and easy to assemble and disassemble. 2019
Examples of reactors assembled
Various laboratory stands are created at the Institute before each major order to estimate the cost of work on creating an industrial design and determine the consumption coefficients of new technological processes.