Evolution of technical systems for electrochemical activation of liquids

V. M. Bakhir, Yu. G. Zadorozhny

VNIIIMT NPO EKRAN, Moscow

The article describes technical systems for electrochemical activation of liquids created by the authors, which are presented in chronological order according to the inventions’ priority.

Electrochemical activation, technical systems

The first experiments, which gave rise to the technology of electrochemical activation, were performed in 1972 in Central Asian Natural Gas Research Institute. They were devoted to studying the parameters of drilling fluid subjected to electrochemical treatment using a pair of electrodes in the form of metal plates. Drilling fluid is a complex poly-disperse system made up of clayey mineral particles in water with added organic substances – stabilizers, structure formants, viscosity and water yield reductants. The principal technological function of a drilling fluid is bringing parts of drilled rock from the borehole bottom to the surface. In the process of current flowing through drilling fluid the anode is quickly covered by a dense clayey crust of most fine-disperse and highly-charged argillaceous particles. The crust prevents the products of anodic electrochemical reactions from entering the drilling fluid, so the fluid’s рН elevates due to cathodic, actually, unipolar cathodic treatment of drilling fluid. It was found that under the conditions of using the same expended quantity of specific power, the smaller cathode area in comparison with anode one, the stronger thixotropic properties of drilling fluid (structural-mechanic strength) and simultaneously lower its dynamic viscosity (paradox). Studying the phenomenon for two years both in laboratory, and in conditions of real life drilling made it possible to understand the nature and mechanism of the processes observed. The described effect had not been known before, so the process of unipolar cathode electrochemical treatment of drilling fluid was firstly termed by V. M. Bakhir as low-voltage polarization, and later, after three years – as electrochemical activation. In 1974 the first claim for invention was lodged [1], which described a way of improving drilling fluid parameters by treatment, without using chemical reagents, in an electrochemical system consisting of a current source and two electrodes, the cathode’s surface area being smaller than the anode’s one. In this invention all metal surfaces of drilling device circulation system coming into contact with drilling fluid actually served as anode. Practical experiments proved the high efficiency of the described electrochemical system, thanks to which up to 30% of chemical reagents normally used for borehole drilling could be saved. Still, the method had a significant fault: periodic removal of clayey crust from anodic surface was rather cumbersome.

Therefore, a more current version [2] was supplied with a different type of electrochemical reactor: besides principal flat electrodes (anode and cathode) auxiliary negative electrodes were applied, and inside a complex composite anode, there occurred auxiliary electrolyte circulation. Dense clayey crust could be removed from the electrochemical unit by modifying electrode performance regimen. Total current flowing through the electrochemical unit of the device’s experimental models achieved 1200 А, the voltage being 24 V.

It was found that the larger the volume of solution coming into direct contact with the surface of working (negative) electrode, the more the extent of changes in drilling fluid after electrochemical treatment. Further logical step was to feed ultrasonic vibrations to the negative electrode [3]. The results of experiments using laboratory models were just remarkable, but the invention was not implemented industrially due to complicacy of setting up and operation.

Searching the most efficient way of automatic removal of electrophoretically formed clayey crust from positive electrodes’ surface led to designing a device [4] with electrochemical reactor electrodes’ polarity switched over by a signal from drilling fluid density control sensor.

One of the variations of controlling the parameters of electrochemical action on drilling fluid and determining the frequency of switching electrochemical unit electrodes’ polarity was a system [5] allowing to evaluate the electrokinetic parameters of solid phase particles of drilling fluid flowing with steady velocity along a canal having different radii of curvature. Received electric signals were used to control the work of the device’s electrochemical unit.

Research into the entire scope of voltages, which could be used for modifying liquid properties resulted in a device [6] capable of preliminary activation of clayey particles in the negative electrode corona discharge area prior to their feeding to a mixer to be introduced into water (catholyte) cathodically treated in a diaphragm-type electrochemical reactor. The device based on this invention was tested on several boreholes and demonstrated that the amount of clay powder expended in the process of drilling fluid preparation could be saved by 40-50%.

Designs of diaphragm-type electrolyzers fitted with flat electrodes for electrochemical treatment of water and aqueous electrolyte solutions have been known for a long time. The first step in the field of analyzing the properties of common fresh water subjected to anodic or cathodic electrochemical action in a diaphragm-type electrolyzer is probably the research conducted by the Russian academician V. V. Petrov in 1802 (30 years prior to Faraday’s discovery of electrolysis laws). With the help of a powerful galvanic battery, which he had created, V. V. Petrov discovered that isolation of electrolysis gases by the electrodes is accompanied with water acidulation in the anode area and alkalization in the cathode area. By the time we started our studies on separate electrochemical water treatment (1976), hundreds of patents for electrochemical reactors with flat and concentrically mounted electrodes and diaphragms separating electrode space had been known. Practical experiments with existing systems brought to light a number of drawbacks. In particular, treating water of lower than 50 g/l mineralization was accompanied by the phenomenon of “spot” electric conductivity (the authors’ term), considerably lowering the efficiency of electrochemical systems. In a device [7], the authors attempted to solve the problem of appearance of “spot” electric conductivity between the system of flat-parallel electrodes separated by flexible diaphragms (belting, chlorine). Electrodes were suggested to be fixed with hinges in the region of water arrival in the electrode unit so that depending on the process parameters, the angle of electrodes’ convergence could be altered and thus treatment could be intensified. The area of one of the device’s electrodes was 0,7 m2, the number of electrodes in a unit was 17 (9 cathodes and 8 anodes). Total current consumed for the device’s operation did not exceed 300 А. In spite of evident progress in electrochemical treatment parameters, the problem was not solved.

Since the drilling fluid is a hetero-phase system saturated with electrically active colloidal particles and therefore very sensitive to outside influence, it is highly responsive to any electrophysical exposure. The device [8] used the effect of drilling fluid exposure to electromagnetic field with resonance frequency corresponding to the mass and electrokinetic potential of disperse phase particles simultaneously exposing the treated fluid to high voltage spark discharge with the help of a negative electrode placed over the fluid surface.

Many interesting facts about qualities of various liquid systems were learned in the process of design and practical tests of a device [9] for foam destruction. Foam destruction results from the high-voltage negative electrodes corona discharge.

Another device [10] demonstrated possibility in principle of water desalination in a corona discharge occurring between the co-axially placed high-voltage electrodes and the bulk of water confined between the diaphragms.

A device [11] to purify drilling fluid consists of electrochemical reactor, inlet capacity for auxiliary electrolyte, rotary pump, constant current source and pressure governor. The device is the first to use auxiliary electrolyte circulating inside the anodes for electrophoretic removal of excessive quantity of highly-dispersive charged particles of drilling fluid solid phase.

A device for drilling fluid treatment [12] is a modification of the device for unipolar electric treatment of drilling fluid UOBR whose serial manufacture by the Kokand plant “Bolshevik” began in 1979. The device is made up of a chute, on the bottom of which, over a dielectric padding, there is a positive electrode consisting of a metal slab with tenons, and a metal plate put on the slab with openings for the tenons. The negative electrode is made of corrugated metal band and its surface is supplied with slits and guides of solution flow. Altogether more than 5 thousand UOBR devices of various modifications were manufactured. The electrochemical reactor of the UOBR device was operated under 24-V voltage and up to 800-A current strength.

A device described in [13] allows combining electrochemical treatment of drilling fluid with its purification from drilled rock particles (slime). Drilling fluid refinement is carried out with the help of a revolving negative electrode through which high density (up to 1500 А/m2) current flows, and simultaneously, along with revolving adhesive layer of drilling fluid it is treated in the field of negative ionizing electrode, and then (in the area of adhesive layer removal from the surface of a revolving electrode) in the field of the corona discharge of positive high-voltage electrode. Experimental models of the device proved highly efficient in refinement and treatment of drilling fluid: saving of chemical reagents was from 50 to 60%. The diameter of a negative revolving electrode was 500 mm and its length –1500 mm, its revolution rate ranged from 500 to 2000 rpm, the current strength was adjusted between 400 and 800 А, at 24-V voltage.

Practical work on the oil-rigs proved advisability of not only cathode, but in certain instances anode unipolar electrochemical treatment of drilling fluid, i.e. polarity of the working electrode was chosen based on compulsory compensation of destabilizing effect of drilled rock on drilling fluid [14]. For this purpose diaphragm electrochemical reactors were supplied with different systems for anode automated cleansing.

From 1979, increasingly more attention in the designs of technical electrochemical systems has been paid to electrode cleansing. The device [15] is meant for production of highly-mineralized water (above 50 g/l) to prepare drilling fluid. It contains a case, co-axially positioned electrodes partitioned by a diaphragm, and nipples for inlet and outlet of processed liquid as well as a constant current source. Cathode and anode are made as truncated cones; and the smaller cathode base is connected with the nipple for treated liquid discharge, concentrically placed with respect to cathode, so that the processed liquid is drained towards the flow of liquid coming to the device. The whole anode surface is perforated and its smaller base is connected with slime-collector through isolation gasket. The diaphragm is placed on the inner anode surface, and on its outer surface there are rigidly mounted spiral ribs transforming inter-electrode chamber into conical heliciform cavity.

The device [16] for drilling fluid treatment includes a revolving disc electrode needing no special cleansing. However, the device’s advantages do not compensate its complicated maintenance.

The practical implementation of regularities of electrochemical transit of liquids into meta-stable state was further developed in the electrochemical system [17], represented by a flow-through diaphragm-type electrochemical reactor fitted with flat-parallel electrodes, whose inter-electrode space is partitioned by the diaphragm into two chambers (of main and auxiliary electrodes), the material of the main electrode being chosen on the basis of the highest overpotential of electrochemical reactions, and the material of the auxiliary electrode – on the basis of the lowest overpotential value.

Long-term investigations and experiments with numerous diaphragm-type electrochemical reactors supplied by flat-parallel electrodes showed their lack in prospects for electrochemical treatment of water and aqueous solutions of lower than 50 g/l mineralization. The devices [18-23] are the first versions of flow-through diaphragm-type electrochemical reactors with co-axially placed electrodes and diaphragm, which belong to the second generation of full-scale plants for electrochemical activation of liquids. The differences between them include possibility of axial transfer of conical anode with the purpose of regulating inter-electrode space (IES), ability of anode to revolve, designing diaphragm to improve cleansing and preserve electrode chamber configuration in conditions of differential pressure, in the form and ratio of electrode chambers’ dimensions, methods of liquid feeding and discharge, etc.

The anodes of the reactors were made of graphite, cathodes – of steel, diaphragms – of chlorine, miplast on the frame of perforated polypropylene tubing or asbestos cement. The surface of a single anode is 0,2 - 0,3 m2. The given systems became the basis for industrial-scale plants for unipolar electric treatment of water of the UEV series (UEV-4, UEV-6, UEV-8 and others). The serial manufacture of the UEV devices by the Kokand plant “Bolshevik” started in 1980. Altogether, from 1980 to 1984 over 800 UEV-6 devices were manufactured, with 20,000 liters per hour capacity. Total current consumed by the electrochemical reactors of these devices ranged between 300 and 1200 А, with voltage up to 30 V.

The devices in question were employed at the oil-rigs of many regions – in Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kirgizia, the Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. They provided 25 - 35% saving of chemical reagents, prevented the power units of oil-rigs with diesel drive from scale formation. The recoupment period of the UEV devices was 2 weeks, their service life being 5 years.

At the same time, work continued on developing both perfect and simpler systems for electrochemical treatment of drilling fluid. Among them is [24] – one of the latest versions of the UOBR devices. Many years of testing and investigating the UOBR devices indicate that the electrochemical unipolar impact on drilling fluid is unique, since it can’t be simulated chemically, and that under other similar conditions, in particular, when specific amount of power consumed for electrochemical treatment of drilling fluid is the same, the higher the polarization (current density) on the cathode and the greater the amount of drilling fluid micro-volumes contacting with cathode surface in the process of treatment, the stronger its parameters are affected.

Starting from 1980, the need has arisen for developing technical electrochemical systems suitable for use in various technologies not associated with drilling. However, the names of many inventions of that time (1980-1984) still contained the word “drilling”. By the way, there is much in common between food emulsions, suspensions, even blood and drilling fluid.

The device [25] was designed for unipolar treatment of dielectric liquids, such as straight-run gasoline applied as raw material in the pyrolysis process. The principal feature of that electrochemical system is the possibility of creating high pressure (up to 2 kgf/cm2) in the working (main) electrode chamber to ensure the filling and replacement of liquid in the auxiliary electrode chamber by filtering the liquid through the diaphragm. The original design prevents inter-electrode disruption (there is no information to this effect in the text of the invention’s description – this is know-how). The devices of this type were tested in the laboratories of the Industrial Association “Nizhnekamskneftekhim”, as well as on test benches for testing internal combustion engines of Tashkent Road-Transport Institute. The results of the tests confirmed the possibility of considerably changed physical and chemical properties of dielectric fluids participating in pyrolysis and combustion processes due to preliminary unipolar electrochemical treatment in the above-indicated device.

The device [26] solved the urgent problem of unipolar electrochemical treatment of emulsions, suspensions and any types of colloidal systems without cleansing the working electrode. The main feature of the device is a rapidly revolving disc electrode mounted with a 3-mm clearance by the surface of a flat ceramic diaphragm, behind which there is a flow-through chamber of auxiliary electrode with independent circulation (under or without pressure) of auxiliary electrolyte. A pilot lot of that type devices was manufactured supplied with a disc electrode of 360-mm diameter and featuring revolution rate of 1500 rpm. The strength of current in the device’s electrochemical reactor being 150 А and voltage - 14 V, it perfectly substituted the UOBR device, that is, the technical system in question allowed reducing power expenditure more than twice. However, complicated manufacture and operation prevented it from competing with UOBR devices.

More intensive research in the field of ECA as well as application of electrochemically activated solutions for household purposes required producing large quantities of either anolyte, or catholyte alone with the help of electrochemical transformation of water or solution in a capacity, without its forced feeding through the electrode chamber of electrochemical reactor. This problem has been solved with the help of device [27], which was the first version of a fundamentally new type of electrochemical reactors in applied electrochemistry – submersible one. It has a hermetically-sealed auxiliary electrode chamber connected with the system of auxiliary electrolyte supply and discharge, and the main electrode mounted by the diaphragm outer surface. Devices of that type were also used for detailed study of convective solution flows in the open (working) electrode chamber under the action of electric current.

The research carried out indicates that in the process of electrochemical transformation of diluted solutions in flow-through electrochemical reactors there occurs significant differential pressure on the diaphragm, and if the diaphragm is made of such materials as belting, tarpaulin, chlorine, open-porous polyethylene, mipore, miplast and other polymers, its deformation results in changed configuration of electrode chamber, which highly negatively affects the electrochemical exposure parameters. So, it was decided to improve flow-through diaphragm-type electrochemical reactors through developing rigid structures with ceramic diaphragms. Electrochemical reactors with ceramic diaphragms whose inner diameter varied from 20 to 150 mm, wall thickness from 2,5 to 6,0 mm and length from 200 to 450 mm and which were made of various types of ceramics were tested. Experimentally, the optimal ratio of anode and cathode diameters, electrode chambers’ width (the distance between electrode surface and diaphragm) and their length in the above-indicated dimensions’ scope and with experimental electrode and diaphragm materials was found. The research resulted in the development of electrochemical reactor [28], which consisted of a cylindrical monobloc electrode made of graphite and coated with a protective layer of dielectric material, with through holes made in parallel to its axis, and coaxially positioned diaphragms and rod-shaped electrodes – anodes – in each of them.

This electrochemical reactor had no analogues, and introduced the third generation of flow-through diaphragm reactors with coaxially arranged electrodes and diaphragms. It was used in many commercially manufactured devices: ELKHA – 003; the first modifications of REDOX, a device for artificial kidney dialyzer cleansing; the first versions of EKHATRON device for poultry farms and EKHATRON-К device for straw saccharification; the first models of ELF device for food industry and some others.

The use of ceramic diaphragms helped solve a number of serious problems, still it generated electric osmosis issue, that is, electroosmotic transfer of liquid through the porous hydrophilic diaphragm. Electroosmotic transfers considerably complicated development of electrochemical systems with a closed volume of slowly renewable auxiliary electrolyte. One of the ways to settle the issue was development of an experimental (laboratory) electrochemical reactor with submersed (working in conditions of no pressure differential) ceramic diaphragm. The problem was solved by connecting electrode chambers with a canal supplied with additional electrodes linked up to a separate current source.

The need to control electroosmotic flows in pressurized systems with flow-through electrochemical reactors and capacities for auxiliary electrolyte gave rise to the creation of a system described in [30]. The contacts in the upper part of the air-tight capacity of auxiliary electrolyte connected via control unit with electromagnetic valve for electrolysis gases’ discharge avert auxiliary electrolyte loss due to excessive pressure in the main electrode chamber.

Another important question was that of current source adaptation to changes in electric conductivity of a solution flowing through the chamber of electrochemical reactor main electrode, as well as the question of coordinating the strength of current flowing through the reactor with the quantity of auxiliary electrolyte to be supplied to auxiliary electrodes’ chamber in order to ensure the normal course of electrochemical treatment. The question was partly decided in device [31], supplied with a current source of “soft” full-load saturation curve and a couple of additional electrodes linked up in parallel to the main and auxiliary electrodes of electrochemical reactor and mounted in an air-tight auxiliary electrolyte replenishing capacity. The intensity of electrolysis gases’ discharge in the replenishing capacity securing auxiliary electrolyte supply to electrochemical reactor is proportional to the strength of current flowing through the chains of electrodes of electrochemical reactor and additional electrodes.

Research on the problem of organic components’ electrosorption by the example of various materials including carbon not only contributed to better understanding the process of designing electrodes for electrochemical reactors, but led to the development of a device [32] for sorption of toxic substances from biologic media.

The principal engineering faults of a flow-through diaphragm reactor for electrochemical treatment of diluted aqueous solutions and its service units were eliminated in devices [28 - 31]. Further practical work helped realize that it was at the moment of developing a reliable electrochemical reactor that electrochemical activation technology in particular and “personal” applied electrochemical technology in general began. This idea can be explained by the following comparison. If we compare the electrochemical reactor to a transistor (both contain three principal components: emitter, collector and base in a transistor, and anode, cathode and diaphragm in the electrochemical reactor), it becomes clear that all contemporary diverse electronic systems whose principal component is transistor (from micro-calculators to the control complex of strategic intercontinental missiles), and which are characterized by variations of transistor inter-connection and the presence of auxiliary elements guaranteeing normal functioning of the whole electric circuit: capacitors, resistances, reactance coils, stabilizers of voltage, current, frequency etc., are similar to hydraulic circuits supplied with diaphragm electrochemical reactors, in which auxiliary elements are auxiliary electrolyte capacities, hydraulic resistances, inter-stage capacities, knock-out drums, separators, reducers, reverse valves, batchers, flotation and catalytic reactors, regulators of flow, level, mineralization and so on. It is worth mentioning that by the number of diversity factors electrochemical systems surpass electronic ones by more than three orders, but in spite of that (or, probably, thanks to that), will be much more popular in future than computers or micro-calculators.

Device [33] for the first time presented an electrochemical system that made possible to remove protein dirtyings from deep-laid pores of dialysis membranes thanks to electroosmotic water flow resulting from the difference of anolyte and catholyte ORP values on different sides of the membrane.

Further research into the convective flow of liquid in the electrode chamber during electrochemical treatment resulted in the development of a device with static electrochemical reactor for separate water treatment [34]. The device consists of a case containing flat electrodes and a vertical diaphragm partitioning the case into electrode chambers. It is supplied with two capacities, each of which communicates with the respective electrode chamber via the through openings in electrodes, which openings are made inclined from the electrode chamber to the bottom of the respective capacity.

Accomplishment of a practical task of creating a laundry washer employing electrochemically activated solutions has led to the development of an electrochemical system working under elevated pressure [35]. A characteristic feature of the system is feeding electrolysis gases emerging in the anodic chamber (oxygen, chlorine) to the cathodic chamber inlet, that is enhancing washing and bleaching effects of catholyte produced out of tap water.

The automatic electrode cleansing by the periodically fed short-term impulses of the opposite polarity current was implemented in the electrochemical activator [36]. Of considerable importance was the choice of anode and cathode material optimal for such cleansing method.

Device [37] represents an electrochemical system made up of two flow-through diaphragm electrochemical reactors, whose chambers of opposite polarity are connected to the same auxiliary electrolyte capacity. Water purified for dialysis flows through free (not linked with auxiliary electrolyte capacity) reactor’s electrode chambers. Adjusting consumption and pressure, as well as current strength in each reactor it is possible on a large scale to control outlet water parameters.

A very important step clearing the way for the development of electrochemical systems of drinking water purification was the appearance of Bazex device [38] (priority from 06.07.90), meant to electrochemically modify and after-purify water employed to prepare dialysis solutions for hemodialysis, that is, water containing no more than 0,15 - 0,20 g/l dissolved salts. This water is subjected to electrochemical cathode treatment in Basex device, and then it is mixed with a concentrated dialyzing solution and fed to artificial kidney dialyzer. The Bazex device served a prototype for several water purification technological processes developed in the same year and later named Emerald, Crystal and Sapphire.

In 1988 in Moscow and Tashkent the authors started developing electrochemical reactors later called flow-through electrolytic modules (FEM). Logically, these reactors were an upgraded version of the electrochemical reactor [28] and could be used independently, as well as a component of flow-through electrochemical reactors (RPE). In 1989 there appeared technical documents for FEM module (later called FEM-1) as well as for RPE reactor made up of seven FEM modules [39], and in the same year, the VNIIIMT experimental plant manufactured a pilot batch of FEM-1 modules and RPE reactors.

The [40] describes the results of testing experimental pre-production models of FEM-1 modules and various laboratory systems based on them, and reviews different technological diagrams of their use. Later (in 1991) claims were lodged for inventions [41, 42], which outlined FEM-1 module’s structural characteristics, as well as the basic diagram of a water purification device, which a year later entered the Russian market as the first version of Emerald water purification device. Other technological processes of water purification having been developed, the authors decided to give the common name of EMERALD (EMERALD) to all water purification devices fitted with electrochemical reactors made up of FEM modules, and distinguish them by the names of the corresponding technological water purification processes employed in each case: EMERALD, SAPPHIRE, CRYSTAL, RUBY, AQUAMARINE, AMBER (AMBER), QUARTZ, BERYL, TOPAZ and others.

In 1989 new RPE electrochemical reactors served as a basis for the first modifications of STEL devices intended for synthesizing electrochemically activated sterilizing, disinfectant and washing solutions. Analysis of FEM-1 module performance brought to light not only its clear advantages as compared to electrochemical reactors of other types, but also significant drawbacks: solution’s capillary hang up due to low volume expenditure, solution’s deactivation at the outlet from electrochemical reactor, structural complexity of collectors’ manufacture, etc. Revealed faults were eliminated in a new FEM module design called FEM -2 [43].

Using these modules, the first generations of STEL [44] and Emerald (Emerald technological process) [45] devices, Sapphire [46] and Amber [47] technological processes were developed and put into commercial production.

In the same year, a gap was filled in the chronology of patenting the inventions in the ECA field and a patent was taken out for a portable device for electrochemical treatment of water developed by the authors in 1986 and commonly known by its trade name of Espero-1 [48]. The inventive idea of the given device is fixation of soft diaphragm between two perforated cone-shaped glasses with coinciding perforation.

Further work on water purification systems gave rise to the development of device [49] using CRYSTAL technology for water purification. The technology featured slow accumulation in the process of operation of acid solution for cathode deposit removal, which is synthesized from the electrolysis gases isolated in the electrochemical reactor’s anodic chambers, and a small amount of water. An abridged version of CRYSTAL technological process, i.e. without cathode-deposit automatic removal using the above solution, is currently being implemented.

The necessity of increasing the capacity of reactors for electrochemical treatment of water and aqueous solutions has led to the creation of RPE -М reactor [50]. The FEM modules in this reactor are arranged concentrically around collectors provided with special gadgets for steady solution feeding to the FEM modules’ electrode chambers.

The operating experience and continuous testing revealed the following disadvantages of FEM-2 module: diaphragm fixation axis misalignment, absence of requirements for its shape (straight cylinder or cone) and wall thickness in its different sectors, as well as requirements for the mode the diaphragm is mounted in a FEM module (with narrow cone base up or down, or application of a diaphragm in the shape of straight cylinder) depending on technology employed in the electrochemical reactor in question, and so on. All the above distinctly negatively affected the parameters of electrochemically activated solutions synthesized in electrochemical reactors.

The device [51] known as FEM-3 is devoid of the above-indicated drawbacks.

With the help of this module, fundamentally new technologies have been worked out to produce sterilizing, disinfectant and washing solutions in STEL devices [52 - 54]; much more sophisticated water purification systems SAPPHIRE [55], EMERALD [56], as well as a new version of STEL device [57].

Further improvement of electrochemical reactors and technologies for their application have allowed designing a number of fundamentally new electrochemical systems, such as AQUACHLOR, HYPOCHLOR, AQUADEZ, ELECTROAQUASOFT and others.

New concepts of developing electrochemical reactors based on FEM-3 modules with greater capacity (up to 10,000 liters per hour) have been created.

Information sources

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Published in the Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Development of Technique and Technology of Electrochemical Activation (Moscow, VNIIIMT, 1999). Abridged.