L. S. Kavruk, Ye. А. Ziborova
All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute for Veterinary Sanitation, Hygiene and Ecology (VNIIVSGE), Moscow
Among infectious diseases in young agricultural animals causing the highest economic damage, the intestinal infections take the leading place. Newborn calf morbidity is 90—100%, and the number of deaths from diarrhea achieves 20—40 and more percent, in spite of the therapy provided. Even antibacterial drugs that are effective at the beginning of diarrhea outbreak, later produce only an insignificant therapeutic action or completely lose it due to the formation of medicinally resistant bacterial strains circulating on an affected farm.
Etiology of these diseases on different farms is ambiguous and is determined by numerous pathogenic microorganism species belonging to different geni and families. However, according to our long-term research and the reports of other authors, the commonest pathogens of bacterial intestinal infections are representatives of the following geni: Escherichia, Proteus, Citrobacter, Morganella, less common — Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Providencia, Yersinia and others. The disease often presents a cross infection with participation of viral agents.
Taking into account the above circumstances, we paid attention to reports on properties of electrochemically activated solutions, and, in particular, of neutral anolyte, due to its high bactericidal ability, possibility of being readily produced in necessary quantities with minimal expenditures, and availability.
We assigned ourselves the task to test the neutral anolyte action on the commonest pathogens of young stock infectious diarrhea, to define the anolyte optimal usage scheme (dosages, order) and efficiency in cases of mass gastro-intestinal diseases of newborn calves.
In laboratory and practical studies we used neutral anolyte (produced by a STEL device) whose parameters were as follows: рН=7.0; redox potential (ORP) = +900 mV; active chlorine content = 300 mg/l. The anolyte’s bactericidal action was determined on the field strains of bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, P. mirabilis, Salmonella dublin, S. enteritidis, Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus. For this purpose, we prepared a mixture of 9 parts of anolyte and 1 part of suspension of 24-hour agar bacterial culture (each strain separately) at a concentration of 1 billion microbial cells per ml, and added 2% protein protection (blood serum). Inocula from the mixture of the above-indicated components were plated with intervals of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 minutes, and then seeded media were incubated at T 37°С during 48 hours.
The results of these studies show that under the action of anolyte, the death of all above-indicated bacterial species, except staphylococcus, occurs after 5 minutes of exposure, and staphylococcus perishes after 7 minutes.
The therapeutic action of neutral anolyte was estimated on dairy farms of ZAO Gorki-2 of Odintsovo region, and kolkhoz named after Vladimir Ilyich of Leninsky district (Moscow oblast). Before the tests, experiments on six clinically healthy newborn calves were carried out. Harmlessness of anolyte was determined by its artificial watering during two days in 300 ml portions, and then 400 мл in a go. The experiments proved harmlessness of the above dosages for calves in their first days of life, because there were no deviations in the calves’ clinical state for three days after anolyte introduction.
To clear up the etiology of mass gastro-intestinal diseases of newborn calves on dairy farms, where testing anolyte’ s therapeutic effect was planned, we bacteriologically studied fecal samples of sick animals, and internal organs and tissues of calves killed by diarrhea. The results demonstrated the presence of a cross intestinal infection on the farms of both facilities. The main diarrhea pathogens were pathogenic bacterial strains Escherichia, Proteus, and in one of them also Morganella.
The virological analysis of pathological material was not performed, but the clinical picture of the disease on dairy farm of ZAO Gorki-2 where the disease was very severe and associated with high lethality did not rule out intestinal viruses.
Calves with diarrhea were treated with neutral anolyte using the following scheme: on the first and second day of disease manifestation — 2 times a day with a 300 ml portion per application. The test was conducted on 19 animals. The 2-day application of anolyte resulted in recovery of all the calves on days 3—4 after the beginning of diarrhea: diarrhea stopped, appetite returned and general state improved.
Our findings on the high therapeutic efficiency of neutral anolyte used according to the above scheme, make possible to start its testing on a larger scale and to recommend facilities suffering from calves’ infectious diarrhea to acquire STEL devices. With its help any facility can have cheap and reliable means of combating diarrhea as well as a disinfectant agent for sanitary treatment of objects and equipment used for raising newborn young stock.
Published in: Veterinarnyi Konsultant, Issue 23, 2002, P. 6